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Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance
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Author and Affiliation:
Bloomberg, Jacob J.(NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States);
Batson, Crystal D.(MEI Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX, United States);
Buxton, Roxanne E.(Houston Univ., Houston, TX, United States);
Feiveson, Al H.(NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States);
Kofman, Igor S.(Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, United States);
Lee, Stuart M. C.(Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, United States);
Miller, Chris A.(Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, United States);
Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.(Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, United States);
Peters, Brian T.(Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, United States);
Phillips, Tiffany(Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, United States);
Platts, Steven H.(NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States);
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.(Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, United States);
Reschke, Millard F.(NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, United States);
Ryder, Jeff W.(Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, United States);
Stenger, Michael B.(Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, United States);
Taylor, Laura C.(Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, TX, United States)
Abstract: Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. ISS crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6, and 12 days after reambulation.
Publication Date: Jan 01, 2014
Document ID:
20140005022
(Acquired May 08, 2014)
Subject Category: AEROSPACE MEDICINE; LIFE SCIENCES (GENERAL)
Report/Patent Number: JSC-CN-31151
Document Type: Conference Paper
Meeting Information: American Astronautical Society - ISS Research and Development Conference; 17-19 Jun. 2014; Chicago, IL
Meeting Sponsor: American Astronautical Society; Springfield, VA, United States
Financial Sponsor: NASA Johnson Space Center; Houston, TX, United States
Description: 2p; In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: Copyright; Distribution as joint owner in the copyright
NASA Terms: ASTRONAUT PERFORMANCE; BED REST; BLOOD PRESSURE; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; COUNTERMEASURES; DECONDITIONING; HEART RATE; HUMAN PERFORMANCE; MICROGRAVITY; NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION; PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS; POSTURE; SPACECREWS
Availability Notes: Abstract Only
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