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Gravitational field models for the earth (GEM 1 and 2)Two models of the earth's gravitational field have been computed at Goddard Space Flight Center. The first, Goddard Earth Model 1 (GEM 1), has been derived from satellite tracking data. The second, Goddard Earth Model 2 (GEM 2), has been derived from a combination of satellite tracking and surface gravimetric data. The geopotential models are represented in spherical harmonics complete to degree and order 16 for the combined solution and complete to degree and order 12 for the satellite solution. Both solutions include zonal terms to degree 21 and related satellite resonant coefficients to degree 22. The satellite data consisted primarily of optical data processed on 300 weekly orbital arcs for 25 close earth satellites. Surface gravity data were employed in the form of 5 deg x 5 deg mean free-air gravity anomalies providing about 70% world coverage. Station locations were obtained for 46 tracking sites by combining electronic, laser, and additional optical tracking data with the above satellite data. Analysis of the radial positions of these stations and a value of mean gravity on the geoid indicated a mean equatorial radius for the earth of about 6378145 meters. Results of geopotential tests on satellite data not used in the solution show that better agreement was obtained with the GEM 1 and GEM 2 models than with the 1969 Smithsonian Standard Earth 2 model.
Document ID
19720021773
Document Type
Technical Memorandum (TM)
Authors
Lerch, F. J. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Wagner, C. A. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Smith, D. E. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Andson, M. L. (Computer Sci. Corp. Falls Church, Va., United States)
Brownd, J. E. (Computer Sci. Corp. Falls Church, Va., United States)
Richardson, J. A. (Computer Sci. Corp. Falls Church, Va., United States)
Date Acquired
September 2, 2013
Publication Date
May 1, 1972
Subject Category
GEOPHYSICS
Report/Patent Number
X-553-72-146
NASA-TM-X-65970
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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