Space Shuttle Orbiter Approach and Landing Test: Final Evaluation ReportThe Approach and Landing Test Program consisted of a series of steps leading to the demonstration of the capability of the Space Shuttle orbiter to safely approach and land under conditions similar to those planned for the final phases of an orbital flight. The tests were conducted with the orbiter mounted on top of a specially modified carrier aircraft. The first step provided airworthiness and performance verification of the carrier aircraft after modification. The second step consisted of three taxi tests and five flight tests with an inert unmanned orbiter. The third step consisted of three mated tests with an active manned orbiter. The fourth step consisted of five flights in which the orbiter was separated from the carrier aircraft. For the final two flights, the orbiter tail cone was replaced by dummy engines to simulate the actual orbital configuration. Landing gear braking and steering tests were accomplished during rollouts following the free flight landings. Ferry testing was integrated into the Approach and Landing Test Program to the extent possible. In addition, four ferry test flights were conducted with the orbiter mated to the carrier aircraft in the ferry configuration after the free-flight tests were completed.