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Antartic sea ice, 1973 - 1976: Satellite passive-microwave observationsData from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Legacy CDMS
Document Type
Special Publication (SP)
Zwally, H. J.
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Comiso, J. C.
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Parkinson, C. L.
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Campbell, W. J.
(Geological Survey Takoma, Wash., United States)
Carsey, F. D.
(Jet Propulsion Lab. California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, United States)
Gloersen, P.
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Date Acquired
September 4, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1983
Subject Category
Report/Patent Number
NAS 1.21:459
Accession Number
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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