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Wheat production in controlled environmentsConditions are optimized for maximum yield and quality of wheat to be used in a controlled environment life support system (CELSS) in a Lunar or Martian base or a spacecraft. With yields of 23 to 57 g/sq m/d of edible biomass, a minimum size for a CELSS would be between 12 and 30 sq m per person, utilizing about 600 W/sq m of electrical energy for artificial light. Temperature, irradiance, photoperiod, carbon dioxide levels, humidity, and wind velocity are controlled in growth chambers. Nutrient solutions (adjusted for wheat) are supplied to the roots via a recirculating system that controls pH by adding HNO3 and controlling the NO3/NH4 ratio in solution. A rock-wool plant support allows direct seeding and densities up to 10,000 plants sq m. Densities up to 2000 plants/sq m appear to increase seed yield. Biomass production increases almost linearily with increasing irradiance from 400 to 1700 micromol/sq m/s of photosynthetic photon flux, but the efficiency of light utilization decreases over this range. Photoperiod and temperature both have a profound influence on floral initiation, spikelet formation, stem elongation, and fertilization.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Salisbury, Frank B.
(Utah State Univ. Logan, UT, United States)
Bugbee, Bruce
(Utah State Univ. Logan, UT, United States)
Bubenheim, David
(Utah State Univ. Logan, UT, United States)
Date Acquired
September 5, 2013
Publication Date
September 1, 1987
Publication Information
Publication: NASA, Ames Research Center, Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Regenerative Life Support Systems in Space
Subject Category
Man/System Technology And Life Support
Report/Patent Number
Accession Number
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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