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Liquid annulusIt is shown that the specific impulse varies with the square root of the temperature and inversely with the square root of the molecular weight of the propellant. Typical values for specific impulse corresponding to various rocket concepts are shown. The Liquid Annulus core concept consists of a fuel element which will be arranged in a moderator block. The advantages as seen for the system are: high specific impulse; structural material will all run at low temperature; and lower fission product inventory because of evaporation. It is felt that this concept is worth at least a first look because of the promise of very high specific impulse. Because of the low thrust, one would probably need a cluster of engines. This is not necessarily bad because there would be some redundancy, but because of the low thrust one might have to refuel while running. Depending on the fuel vaporization, material can be included in the uranium that is injected as one is running along.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Lab. Upton, NY, United States)
Date Acquired
September 6, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1991
Publication Information
Publication: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion: A Joint NASA(DOE)DOD Workshop
Subject Category
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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NameType 19920001886.pdf STI