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Generic Sensor Modeling Using Pulse MethodRecent development of high spatial resolution satellites such as IKONOS, Quickbird and Orbview enable observation of the Earth's surface with sub-meter resolution. Compared to the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 5 TM, the amount of information in the output image was dramatically increased. In this era of high spatial resolution, the estimation of spatial quality of images is gaining attention. Historically, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) concept has been used to estimate an imaging system's spatial quality. Sometimes classified by target shapes, various methods were developed in laboratory environment utilizing sinusoidal inputs, periodic bar patterns and narrow slits. On-orbit sensor MTF estimation was performed on 30-meter GSD Landsat4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data from the bridge pulse target as a pulse input . Because of a high resolution sensor s small Ground Sampling Distance (GSD), reasonably sized man-made edge, pulse, and impulse targets can be deployed on a uniform grassy area with accurate control of ground targets using tarps and convex mirrors. All the previous work cited calculated MTF without testing the MTF estimator's performance. In previous report, a numerical generic sensor model had been developed to simulate and improve the performance of on-orbit MTF estimating techniques. Results from the previous sensor modeling report that have been incorporated into standard MTF estimation work include Fermi edge detection and the newly developed 4th order modified Savitzky-Golay (MSG) interpolation technique. Noise sensitivity had been studied by performing simulations on known noise sources and a sensor model. Extensive investigation was done to characterize multi-resolution ground noise. Finally, angle simulation was tested by using synthetic pulse targets with angles from 2 to 15 degrees, several brightness levels, and different noise levels from both ground targets and imaging system. As a continuing research activity using the developed sensor model, this report was dedicated to MTF estimation via pulse input method characterization using the Fermi edge detection and 4th order MSG interpolation method. The relationship between pulse width and MTF value at Nyquist was studied including error detection and correction schemes. Pulse target angle sensitivity was studied by using synthetic targets angled from 2 to 12 degrees. In this report, from the ground and system noise simulation, a minimum SNR value was suggested for a stable MTF value at Nyquist for the pulse method. Target width error detection and adjustment technique based on a smooth transition of MTF profile is presented, which is specifically applicable only to the pulse method with 3 pixel wide targets.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Document Type
Helder, Dennis L.
(South Dakota Univ. SD, United States)
Choi, Taeyoung
(South Dakota Univ. SD, United States)
Date Acquired
September 7, 2013
Publication Date
August 1, 2005
Subject Category
Instrumentation And Photography
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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