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Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission ScenariosPreliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.
Document ID
Document Type
Preprint (Draft being sent to journal)
Clowdsley, Martha S. (NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Nealy, John E. (Old Dominion Univ. Norfolk, VA, United States)
Wilson, John W. (NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Anderson, Brooke M. (NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Anderson, Mark S. (Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc. Hampton, VA, United States)
Krizan, Shawn A. (Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc. Hampton, VA, United States)
Date Acquired
September 7, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2005
Subject Category
Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
Meeting Information
AIAA SPACE 2005 Conference and Exposition(Long Beach, CA)
Funding Number(s)
OTHER: 23-612-10-81-A1
Distribution Limits
Public Use Permitted.

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