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risk mitigation approach to commercial resupply to the international space stationIn August 2006, NASA awarded Space Act Agreements (SAAs) for Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) under the Commercial Crew and Cargo Project Office at Johnson Space Center. One of the goals of the SAAs is to facilitate U.S. private industry demonstration of cargo transportation capabilities, ultimately achieving reliable, cost effective access to low-Earth orbit (LEO). Each COTS provider is required to complete International Space Stations (ISS) Integration activities, which includes meeting the physical and functional interfaces and interface requirements between the ISS and COTS vehicles. These requirements focus on the areas of risk to the ISS during rendezvous and proximity operations, as well as the integration operations while the COTS vehicle is berthed to the ISS. On December 23, 2008, NASA awarded Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) contracts to provide resupply services to the ISS, following the Shuttle retirement. In addition to performing any ISS Integration activities, NASA will be performing independent assessments of the launch vehicle and orbital vehicle to evaluate the readiness of the contractor to deliver NASA cargo safely to the ISS. This paper will address the activities NASA Centers, both JSC and KSC, in the oversight and insight function over commercial visiting vehicles to the ISS.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Koons, Diane S.
(NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX, United States)
Schreiber, Craig
(NASA Kennedy Space Center Cocoa Beach, FL, United States)
Date Acquired
August 24, 2013
Publication Date
May 19, 2010
Subject Category
Space Transportation and Safety
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
Fourth Annual International Association for the Advancement of Space(Huntsville, AL)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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