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Decline of Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico- Is the Migratory Phenomenon at Risk?1.During the 2009-2010 overwintering season and following a 15-year downward trend, the total area in Mexico occupied by the eastern North American population of overwintering monarch butterflies reached an all-time low. Despite an increase, it remained low in 2010-2011. 2. Although the data set is small, the decline in abundance is statistically significant using both linear and exponential regression models. 3. Three factors appear to have contributed to reduce monarch abundance: degradation of the forest in the overwintering areas; the loss of breeding habitat in the United States due to the expansion ofGM herbicide-resistant crops, with consequent loss of milkweed host plants, as well as continued land development; and severe weather. 4. This decline calls into question the long-term survival of the monarchs' migratory phenomenon
Document ID
20140010155
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Authors
Brower, Lincoln (Sweet Briar Coll. Sweet Briar, VA, United States)
Taylor, Orley R. (Kansas Univ. Lawrence, KS, United States)
Williams, Ernest H. (Hamilton Coll. Clinton, NY, United States)
Slayback, Daniel (Science Systems and Applications, Inc. Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Zubieta, Raul R. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Coyoacan, Mexico)
Ramirez, M. Isabel (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Morelia, Mexico)
Date Acquired
July 24, 2014
Publication Date
March 1, 2012
Publication Information
Publication: Insect Conservation and Diversity
Volume: 5
Issue: 2
Subject Category
Geosciences (General)
Report/Patent Number
GSFC-E-DAA-TN10485
Funding Number(s)
CONTRACT_GRANT: NNG12HP08C
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Public Use Permitted.
Keywords
Habitat
Conservation
lepidoptera

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