Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX IIIThis paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.
Contractor Report (CR)
Vander Wal, Randy L. (Pennsylvania State Univ. University Park, PA, United States)
Bryg, Victoria M. (Universities Space Research Association Cleveland, OH, United States)
September 18, 2014
June 1, 2014
Environment PollutionInorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry