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On a Solar Origin for the Cosmogenic Nuclide Event of 775 A.D.We explore requirements for a solar particle event (SPE) and flare capable of producing the cosmogenic nuclide event of 775 A.D., and review solar circumstances at that time. A solar source for 775 would require a greater than 1 GV spectrum approximately 45 times stronger than that of the intense high-energy SPE of 1956 February 23. This implies a greater than 30 MeV proton fluence (F(sub 30)) of approximately 8 × 10(exp 10) proton cm(exp −2), approximately 10 times larger than that of the strongest 3 month interval of SPE activity in the modern era. This inferred F(sub 30) value for the 775 SPE is inconsistent with the occurrence probability distribution for greater than 30 MeV solar proton events. The best guess value for the soft X-ray classification (total energy) of an associated flare is approximately X230 (approximately 9 × 10(exp 33) erg). For comparison, the flares on 2003 November 4 and 1859 September 1 had observed/inferred values of approximately X35 (approximately 10(exp 33) erg) and approximately X45 (approximately 2 × 10(exp 33) erg), respectively. The estimated size of the source active region for a approximately 10(exp 34) erg flare is approximately 2.5 times that of the largest region yet recorded. The 775 event occurred during a period of relatively low solar activity, with a peak smoothed amplitude about half that of the second half of the 20th century. The approximately 1945-1995 interval, the most active of the last approximately 2000 yr, failed to witness a SPE comparable to that required for the proposed solar event in 775. These considerations challenge a recent suggestion that the 775 event is likely of solar origin.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Cliver, E. W. (Air Force Research Lab. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, United States)
Tylka, A. J. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Dietrich, W. F. (Praxis, Inc. Alexandria, VA, United States)
Ling, A. G. (Air Force Research Lab. Kirtland AFB, NM, United States)
Date Acquired
May 12, 2015
Publication Date
January 3, 2014
Publication Information
Publication: The Astrophysical Journal
Volume: 781
Issue: 1
Subject Category
Solar Physics
Report/Patent Number
Distribution Limits
Public Use Permitted.
solar particles
solar flares

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