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The Lunar Geophysical Network MissionOverarching Principles: Must be better than Apollo (coverage, duration, instrument performance); Learn from the Apollo experience. Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN) New Frontiers (NF)-class mission, as part of the NF-5 call. “This mission consists of several identical landers distributed across the lunar surface, each carrying geophysical instrumentation. The primary science objectives are to characterize the Moon’s internal structure, seismic activity, global heat flow budget, bulk composition, & magnetic field.” Global distribution of multiple stations. Each station should contain a seismometer, heat flow probe, electromagnetic sounder, laser retroreflector (lunar nearside). Each station must be long-lived (e.g., approximately10 years)to allow other stations (from other countries?) to be integrated with the anchor nodes to form the International Lunar Network. Why LGN? Planetary Science: Moon represents an end-member in planetary evolution (large small body, small rocky planet); Primary planetary differentiation preserved; Key to understanding terrestrial planet initial differentiation. Lunar Science: Heat flow probes yield crustal heat budget estimates; Combined with EMS (ElectroMagnetic Sounding), the temperature profile of the deep interior can be modeled along with mineralogy; Seismic and LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) data also yield structure and compositional information of the lunar interior; High fidelity data from LGN would enhance the usefulness of the GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) and SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) gravity data. Human Exploration: LGN must be established prior to renewed human lunar activity - we do not know the exact locations or causes of the shallow moonquakes (SMQs) - the largest magnitude seismic events recorded by Apollo (1 event per year of magnitude greater than or equal to 5); Establishing surface infrastructure near SMQ epicenters must be avoided.
Document ID
Document Type
Neal, C. R.
(Notre Dame Univ. IN, United States)
Banerdt, W. B.
(Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA, United States)
Beghein, C.
(California Univ. Los Angeles, CA, United States)
Chi, P.
(California Univ. Los Angeles, CA, United States)
Currie, D.
(Maryland Univ. College Park, MD, United States)
Del’Agnello, S.
(Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Frascati, Italy)
Garrick-Bethell, I.
(California Univ. Santa Cruz, CA, United States)
Grimm, R.
(Southwest Research Inst. Boulder, CO, United States)
Grott, M.
(Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Cologne, Germany)
Haviland, H.
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Kedar, S.
(Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA, United States)
Nagihara, S.
(Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX, United States)
Panning, M.
(Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA, United States)
Petro, N.
(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Siegler, M.
(Planetary Science Inst. Tucson, AZ, United States)
Weber, R.
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Wieczorek, M.
(Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur Nice, France)
Zacny, K.
(Honeybee Robotics Pasadena, CA, United States)
Date Acquired
March 27, 2019
Publication Date
March 18, 2019
Subject Category
Lunar And Planetary Science And Exploration
Report/Patent Number
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Portions of document may include copyright protected material.
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