NTRS - NASA Technical Reports Server

Back to Results
Radiation protection and instrumentationRadiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.
Document ID
Document Type
Book Chapter
J. Vernon Bailey
(Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas, United States)
Date Acquired
August 8, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1975
Publication Information
Publication: Biomedical Results of Apollo
Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Volume: NASA-SP-368
Issue Publication Date: January 1, 1975
Subject Category
Aerospace Medicine
Accession Number
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
No Preview Available