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Nutritional studiesDetailed metabolic studies were conducted of the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 flight crews, and the results are presented in tabular form. Intake and absorption data are also included. Apollo nutrient intakes were found to be characteristically hypocaloric. Estimates of body composition changes from metabolic balance data, from preflight and postflight weights and volumes, and from total body water and potassium provide no evidence for diminished caloric requirements during a flight. As observed during the Gemini Program and during periods of bed rest, measurements of bone density and metabolic balance confirm a tendency toward loss of skeletal tissue in weightlessness. No evidence exists that any inflight metabolic anomaly, including hypokalemia, was induced by marginal or deficient nutrient intakes. In general, the Apollo crewmen were well nourished and exhibited normal gastroenterological functions, although appetite was somewhat diminished and the organoleptic response to food was somewhat modified during flight.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Johnson Space Center
Document Type
Book Chapter
Paul C. Rambaut
(Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas, United States)
Malcolm C. Smith, Jr.
(Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas, United States)
Harry O. Wheeler
(Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas, United States)
Date Acquired
August 8, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1975
Publication Information
Publication: Biomedical Results of Apollo
Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Volume: NASA-SP-368
Issue Publication Date: January 1, 1975
Subject Category
Aerospace Medicine
Accession Number
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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