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Modeling and simulation of a turbulent far wakeWork continued on two projects which had been started during previous years. Both projects involve calculations of the subsonic, turbulent far wake of a two-dimensional object at a Reynolds number of 1000 (based on wake momentum thickness). This flow was used as a test case for direct comparison of various turbulence models and a direct numerical simulations (DNS) of this flow were undertaken. In the turbulence model comparison studies, for any particular model tested, a unique self-similar solution was obtained far enough downstream, regardless of inlet conditions. Furthermore, different turbulence models led to different far-wake equilibrium solutions. No turbulence model could correctly predict all features of the turbulent far wake. For example, the spreading rate and turbulent shear stresses were underpredicted by all the standard models (both two-equation and full Reynolds stress models). In cases where a more correct spreading rate was achieved, it was at the expense of the turbulent kinetic energy, which was overpredicted. In general, the Algebraic Dissipation Rate Model of Gatski and Speziale, 1992, when added to any of the standard models, improved the results dramatically. Also, full Reynolds stress closure models did a much better job at predicting the shapes of both the mean and turbulence profiles, but the spreading rate was not significantly improved over that predicted by the simpler two-equation models. There are two main conclusions from these studies: First, in a comparison such as this, it is not enough to compare just one parameter, like the spreading rate. A good prediction for one parameter does not necessarily imply good predictions for all parameters in a flow. Second, since no turbulence model could correctly predict the turbulent far wake, much of the important physics of turbulent free shear flows is apparently lost by the assumptions inherent in today's methods of turbulence modeling; turbulence models must be improved. Direct simulations of this flow were begun last year in order to provide a data base through which some of the deficiencies of the existing turbulence models could be identified. Quantities such as the pressure-strain correlation, turbulent diffusion, and the dissipation rate tensor can be easily calculated from the DNS results, whereas these quantities are nearly impossible to measure experimentally. Improvements to existing turbulence models (and development of new models) require knowledge about flow quantities such as these. During this summer, diagnostics codes were written which will calculate the parameters mentioned above, along with other single-point and multi-point statistics. The DNS calculations are still in progress at the time of this writing. When these calculations are complete, the diagnostics codes will be applied so that the results can aid turbulence modelers. In addition, the results will show whether or not there exists a universal equilibrium turbulent far wake, independent of initial conditions.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Cimbala, John M.
(Pennsylvania State Univ. University Park, PA United States)
Date Acquired
August 17, 2013
Publication Date
December 1, 1995
Publication Information
Publication: The 1995 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program
Subject Category
Fluid Mechanics And Heat Transfer
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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IDRelationTitle19960020755Analytic PrimaryThe 1995 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program
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