## NTRS - NASA Technical Reports Server

A test of a vortex method for the computation of flap side edge noiseUpon approach to landing, a major source location of airframe noise occurs at the side edges of the part span, trailing edge flaps. In the vicinity of these flaps, a complex arrangement of spanwise flow with primary and secondary tip vortices may form. Each of these vortices is observed to become fully three-dimensional. In the present study, a numerical model is developed to investigate the noise radiated from the side edge of a flap. The inherent three-dimensionality of this flow forces us to carefully consider a numerical scheme which will be both accurate in its prediction of the flow acoustics and also computationally efficient. Vortex methods have offered a fast and efficient means of simulating many two and three-dimensional, vortex dominated flows. In vortex methods, the time development of the flow is tracked by following exclusively the vorticity containing regions. Through the Biot-Savart law, knowledge of the vorticity field enables one to obtain flow quantities at any desired location during the flow evolution. In the present study, a numerical procedure has been developed which incorporates the Lagrangian approach of vortex methods into a calculation for the noise radiated by a flow-surface interaction. In particular, the noise generated by a vortex in the presence of a flat half plane is considered. This problem serves as a basic model of flap edge flow. It also permits the direct comparison between our computed results and previous acoustic analyses performed for this problem. In our numerical simulations, the mean flow is represented by the complex potential W(z) = Aiz(exp l/2), which is obtained through conformal mapping techniques. The magnitude of the mean flow is controlled by the parameter A. This mean flow has been used in the acoustic analysis by Hardin and is considered a reasonable model of the flow field in the vicinity of the edge and away from the leading and trailing edges of the flap. To represent the primary vortex which occurs near the flap, a point vortex is introduced just below the flat half plane. Using a technique from panel methods, boundary conditions on the flap surface are satisfied by the introduction of a row of stationary point vortices along the extent of the flap. At each time step in the calculation, the strength of these vortices is chosen to eliminate the normal velocity at intermediary collocation points. The time development of the overall flow field is then tracked using standard techniques from vortex methods. Vortex trajectories obtained through this computation are in good agreement with those predicted by the analytical solution given by Hardin, thus verifying the viability of this procedure for more complex flow arrangements. For the flow acoustics, the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation is numerically integrated. This equation supplies the far field acoustic pressure based upon pressures occurring along the flap surface. With our vortex method solution, surface pressures may be obtained with exceptional resolution. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation is integrated using a spatially fourth order accurate Simpson's rule. Rational function interpolation is used to obtain the surface pressures at the appropriate retarded times. Comparisons between our numerical results for the acoustic pressure and those predicted by the Hardin analysis have been made. Preliminary results indicate the need for an improved integration technique. In the future, the numerical procedure developed in this study will be applied to the case of a rectangular flap of finite thickness and ultimately modified for application to the fully three-dimensional problem.
Document ID
19960020785
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Martin, James E.
(Christopher Newport Coll. Newport News, VA United States)
Date Acquired
August 17, 2013
Publication Date
December 1, 1995
Publication Information
Publication: The 1995 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program
Subject Category
Acoustics
Distribution Limits
Public