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Overview of techniques for mitigation of fading and shadowing in the direct broadcast satellite radio environmentThe DBS radio propagation environment is divided into three sub-environments, indoor, rural-suburban mobile and urban mobile. Indoor propagation effects are in a large part determined by construction material. Non-metallic materials afford direct, albeit attenuated penetration of the satellite signal with a minimum of multipath signal scattering. Signal penetration into structures using significant metallic materials is often indirect, through openings such as doors and windows and propagation will involve significant multipath components. Even so, delay spread in many situations is on the order of 10's of nanoseconds resulting in relatively flat fading. Thus frequency diversity techniques such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) or equalization techniques do not realize their intended performance enhancement. Antenna diversity, directivity and placement are key mitigation techniques for the indoor environment. In the Rural-Suburban mobile environment with elevation angles greater than 20 deg, multipath components from the satellite signal are 15-20 dB below the line-of-sight signal level and often originate from nearby reflectors. Thus shadowing is the dominant signal impairment and fading effects are again found to be relatively flat for a large fading margin. Because receiver motion induces rapid variations in the signal level, temporal diversity techniques such as interleaving, channel coding and retransmission can be used to combat short intermittent fading events. Antenna diversity and directivity techniques are again useful in this environment. Finally, in the Urban mobile environment, slower vehicle speeds and blockage by buildings causes signal fades that are too long and too deep to combat with signal margin or time diversity. Land-based signal boosters are needed to fill in the coverage gaps of the satellite only broadcast scheme. On frequency boosters are suggested to conserve bandwidth yet these produce long delay multipath and create a frequency selective fading environment. Enter now OFDM, spread spectrum, equalization and other techniques that are capable of deconvolving the channel effects and effecting significant performance improvements by extracting the frequency diversity or time diversity components comprising the received signal.
Document ID
19960022524
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Bell, David (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA United States)
Gevargiz, John (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA United States)
Vaisnys, Arvydas (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA United States)
Julian, David (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA United States)
Date Acquired
August 17, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1995
Publication Information
Publication: Proceedings of the Fourth International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC 1995)
Subject Category
Communications and Radar
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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IDRelationTitle19960022452Analytic PrimaryProceedings of the Fourth International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC 1995)
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