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the role of calcium in the response of osteoblasts to mechanical stimulationA major biomedical concern in the exploration and development of space is the rapid loss of bone associated with extended periods of spaceflight. Mineral content, bone formation, matrix protein production and total body calcium are all reduced during long-term periods of weightlessness. These effects of weightlessness appears to be due to decreases in the anabolic function of osteoblasts and osteocytes rather than changes in the resorptive activity of osteoclasts. Conversely, subjecting the skeleton to exogenous mechanical loading increases matrix protein synthesis and bone formation rate, a process which also appears mediated through osteogenic cells. Osteoblasts have been shown to respond to a number of types of mechanical stimulation. However recently we have demonstrated that osteoblasts respond to fluid shear, but not physiologic levels of mechanical strain, with increases in expression of the matrix protein, osteopontin. We have also shown similar responses in other markers for the anabolic response in bone. The expression of the early response gene, c-fos, and the inducible-isoform of the prostaglandin synthetic enzyme, cyclooygenase-2 (COX-2), both increase rapidly in response to fluid shear, but not strain. How osteoblasts and osteocytes perceive mechanical stimuli and convert this stimulus into a biochemical event within the cell is still unknown. However, examination of the cellular events following mechanical stimulation indicate that two of the earliest responses are a rapid increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](sub i)) and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The increase in [Ca(2+)](sub i) is dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), suggesting the activation of membrane Ca(2+) channel. We have previously characterized a mechanosensitive, cation-selective channel (MSCC) in osteoblast-like clonal cells, which we postulate is important in this early response to mechanical loading. Using an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide strategy, we have tentatively identified this channel as an isoform of the alc subunit of the dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage sensitive Ca(2+) channel (VSCC). However, a major component in this mechanically induced rise in [Ca(2+)](sub i) is the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. The actin cytoskeleton also rapidly responds to fluid shear with an increase in stress fiber formation and a realignment of the cell parallel to the direction of flow. To ascertain whether these two observations are related and how they effect shear-induced gene expression, we examined the role of Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release on cytoskeletal reorganization and the resultant increases in the expression and production of c-fos and COX-2 in response to fluid shear.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Duncan, R. L.
(Indiana Univ. Medical Center Indianapolis, IN United States)
Farach-Carson, M. C.
(Delaware Univ. Newark, DE United States)
Pavalko, F. M.
(Indiana Univ. Medical Center Indianapolis, IN United States)
Date Acquired
August 19, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1999
Publication Information
Publication: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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IDRelationTitle20000020485Analytic PrimaryProceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop
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