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cardiovascular session summaryIt was apparent that the bed-rest and spaceflight data indicated that decreases in plasma volume and cardiac atrophy along with cardiac remodeling were fundamental changes which predisposed many astronauts to post flight orthostatic intolerance. Despite the recently acquired in-flight and post-flight muscle sympathetic nerve activity findings suggesting that the sympathetic nerve responses were appropriate there remains significant contrary data from bed-rest studies, post- flight stand tests and hind-limb unweighted rat studies that suggest that the vasoconstrictive responses were compromised at least insufficient in susceptible individuals. The key issues raised is whether a diminished increase in sympathetic activity from baseline without changes in 254 First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators'Workshop Cardiovascular peak response or receptor adaptations is an abnormal response or is an individual variance of response to the accentuated decrease in stroke volume. Data relating autonomic neural control of heart rate were presented to suggest that the vagal and sympathetic control of heart rate was attenuated. Also, bed-rest and space flight induced attenuated baroreflex control of heart rate was shown to be restored to pre-bedrest function by one bout of maximal dynamic exercise. However, these data were confounded by relying on the use of R-R interval as a measure of efferent responses of the baroreflex during a condition in which the baseline heart rate was changed. Clearly the idea that the autonomic control of heart rate may be changed by microgravity needs further investigation. This direction is suggested despite the fact that in the triple product (HR x SV x TPR = MAP) assessment of the regulation of arterial blood pressure during orthostasis the role of the HR reflex may be less influential than that associated. with cardiac atrophy (SV changes) and aberrant sympathetic vasoconstriction (resistance) changes. Although sympathetic nerve activity responses in-flight and post-flight on neurolab appeared appropriate, enough bed-rest and post-flight stand test data, along with animal model data suggest that vasoconstriction was compromised. The mechanism of this compromised vasoconstriction needs to be delineated. Other major findings concerning microgravity and physiological regulatory systems are that: I . Thermoregulatory adaptation appear to suggest some decrements in the control of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating; 2. Calcium resorption and dietary calcium need to be defined for differing durations of spaceflight, especially as the effects of excess calcium on vasomotor function appears to be detrimental; 3. Neurohumoral mechanisms of microgravity induced changes in neural function and the regulation of plasma volume and total body water, bone resorption and autonomic neural control of the circulation need further delineation; 4. As performance of work tasks become prolonged, the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation in microgravity needs to be used in the recovery period from prolonged work tasks.
Document ID
20000020542
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Raven, Peter
(University of North Texas Health Science Center Forth Worth, TX United States)
Schneider, Sue
(NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX United States)
Date Acquired
August 19, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1999
Publication Information
Publication: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop
Subject Category
Aerospace Medicine
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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IDRelationTitle20000020485Analytic PrimaryProceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop
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