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alterations in skeletal muscle function with microgravity, and the protective effects of high resistance isometric and isotonic exerciseExposure to microgravity or models designed to mimic the unloaded condition, such as bed rest in humans and hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, a loss in peak force and power, and an increased susceptibility to fatigue. The posterior compartment muscles of the lower leg (calf muscle group) appear to be particularly susceptible. Following only 1 wk in space or HU, rat soleus muscle showed a 30 to 40% loss in wet weight. After 3 wk of HU, almost all of the atrophied soleus fibers showed a significant increase in maximal shortening velocity (V(sub 0)), while only 25 to 30 % actually transitioned to fast fibers. The increased V(sub 0), was protective in that it reduced the decline in peak power associated with the reduced peak force. When the soleus is stimulated in situ following HU or zero-g one observes an increased rate and extent of fatigue, and in the former the increased fatigue is associated with a more rapid depletion of muscle glycogen and lactate production. Our working hypothesis is that following HU or spaceflight in rats and bed rest or spaceflight in humans limb skeletal muscles during contractile activity depend more on carbohydrates and less on fatty acids for their substrate supply. Baldwin et al. found 9 days of spaceflight to reduce by 37% the ability of both the high and low oxidative regions of the vastus muscle to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. This decline was not associated with any change in the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle or oxidation pathway. The purpose of the current research was to establish the extent of functional change in the slow type I and fast type H fibers of the human calf muscle following 17 days of spaceflight, and determine the cellular mechanisms of the observed changes. A second goal was to study the effectiveness of high resistance isotonic and isometric exercise in preventing the deleterious functional changes associated with unloading.
Document ID
20000020591
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Fitts, R. H.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Hurst, J. E.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Norenberg, K. M.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Widrick, J. J.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Riley, D. A.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Bain, J. L. W.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Trappe, S. W.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Trappe, T. A.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Costill, D. L.
(Marquette Univ. Milwaukee, WI United States)
Date Acquired
August 19, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1999
Publication Information
Publication: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop
Subject Category
Aerospace Medicine
Funding Number(s)
CONTRACT_GRANT: NAS9-18768
CONTRACT_GRANT: NAG5-6058
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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IDRelationTitle20000020485Analytic PrimaryProceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop
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