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Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and ApplicationsThe technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion and friction; thermal conductivity; chemical and thermal inertness; corrosion and wear resistance; radiation resistance and biocompatibility; electronic, acoustic, and electrochemical characteristics; and environmental compatibility. These properties make diamond attractive for a wide range of diverse applications. In particular, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond coatings offer a broad potential, since size and cost are not as limiting. The production of large, superhard diamond films or sheets at low cost make designer materials possible. This presentation is divided into two sections: properties and applications of hard coatings. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of CVD diamonds and related materials. The surface properties of hard coatings with favorable coefficients of friction (less than or equal to 0.1) and dimensional wear coefficients (less than or equal to 10(exp -6) cubic millimeters/N.m) in specific environments are discussed. The second section is devoted to applications. Examples of actual, successful applications and of potential challenging applications of the coatings.such as CVD diamond, diamondlike carbon, and cubic boron nitride-are described. Cutting tools coated with CVD diamond are of immediate commercial interest. Other applications, such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), valves, and bearings of CVD diamond, are being developed, but at a slow pace. There is a continually growing interest in commercializing diamondlike carbon for wear parts applications, such as biomedical parts and implants, forming dies, transport guides, magnetic tapes and disks, valves, and gears. Cubic boron nitride films are receiving attention because they can be used on tools to machine ferrous materials or on wear parts in sliding contact with ferrous materials.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Glenn Research Center
Document Type
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Date Acquired
August 21, 2013
Publication Date
August 1, 2003
Publication Information
Publication: Proceedings of the Seventh Applied Diamond Conference/Third Frontier Carbon Technology Joint Conference
Subject Category
Mechanical Engineering
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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