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Low Emission Hydrogen Combustors for Gas Turbines Using Lean Direct InjectionOne of the key technology challenges for the use of hydrogen in gas turbine engines is the performance of the combustion system, in particular the fuel injectors. To investigate the combustion performance of gaseous hydrogen fuel injectors flame tube combustor experiments were performed. Tests were conducted to measure the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and combustion performance at inlet conditions of 600 to 1000 deg F, 60 to 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia), and equivalence ratios up to 0.48. All the injectors were based on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) technology with multiple injection points and quick mixing. One challenge to hydrogen based premixing combustion systems is flashback since hydrogen has a reaction rate over seven times that of Jet-A. To reduce the risk, design mixing times were kept short and velocities high to minimize flashback. Five fuel injector designs were tested in 2.5 and 3.5-in. diameter flame tubes with non-vitiated heated air and gaseous hydrogen. Data is presented on measurements of NOx emissions and combustion efficiency for the hydrogen injectors at 1.0, 3.125, and 5.375 in. from the injector face. Results show that for some configurations, NOx emissions are comparable to that of state of the art Jet-A LDI combustor concepts.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Marek, C. John
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Smith, Timothy D.
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Kundu, Krishna
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Date Acquired
August 24, 2013
Publication Date
July 10, 2005
Subject Category
Aircraft Propulsion And Power
Report/Patent Number
AIAA Paper-2005-3776
Meeting Information
41st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit(Tucson, AZ)
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 22-066-10-12
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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