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Evaluating Daily Load Stimulus Formulas in Relating Bone Response to ExerciseSix formulas representing what is commonly referred to as "daily load stimulus" are identified, compared and tested in their ability to relate skeletal mechanical loading to bone maintenance and osteogenic response. Particular emphasis is placed on exercise- induced skeletal loading and whether or not the formulas can adequately capture the known experimental observations of saturation of continuous cyclic loading, rest insertion between repetitions (cycles), recovery of osteogenic potential following saturation, and multiple shorter bouts versus a single long bout of exercise. To evaluate the ability of the formulas to capture these characteristics, a set of exercise scenarios with type of exercise bout, specific duration, number of repetitions, and rest insertion between repetitions is defined. The daily load values obtained from the formulas for the loading conditions of the set of scenarios is illustrated. Not all of the formulas form estimates of daily load in units of stress or in terms of strain at a skeletal site due to the loading force from a specific exercise prescription. The comparative results show that none of the formulas are able to capture all of the experimentally observed characteristics of cyclic loading. However, the enhanced formula presented by Genc et al. does capture several characteristics of cyclic loading that the others do not, namely recovery of osteogenic potential and saturation. This could be a basis for further development of mathematical formulas that more adequately approximates the amount of daily stress at a skeletal site that contributes to bone adaptation.
Document ID
Acquisition Source
Glenn Research Center
Document Type
Technical Memorandum (TM)
Pennline, James A.
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Mulugeta, Lealem
(Universities Space Research Association Houston, TX, United States)
Date Acquired
September 29, 2014
Publication Date
June 1, 2014
Subject Category
Numerical Analysis
Aerospace Medicine
Report/Patent Number
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 516724.02.02.10
Distribution Limits
Public Use Permitted.
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