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NASA Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of UTRC Low Emissions InjectorComputational and experimental analyses of a PICS-Pilot-In-Can-Swirler technology injector, developed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) are presented. NASA has defined technology targets for near term (called "N+1", circa 2015), midterm ("N+2", circa 2020) and far term ("N+3", circa 2030) that specify realistic emissions and fuel efficiency goals for commercial aircraft. This injector has potential for application in an engine to meet the Pratt & Whitney N+3 supersonic cycle goals, or the subsonic N+2 engine cycle goals. Experimental methods were employed to investigate supersonic cruise points as well as select points of the subsonic cycle engine; cruise, approach, and idle with a slightly elevated inlet pressure. Experiments at NASA employed gas analysis and a suite of laser-based measurement techniques to characterize the combustor flow downstream from the PICS dump plane. Optical diagnostics employed for this work included Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of fuel for injector spray pattern and Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy for relative species concentration of fuel and CO2. The work reported here used unheated (liquid) Jet-A fuel for all fuel circuits and cycle conditions. The initial tests performed by UTRC used vaporized Jet-A to simulate the expected supersonic cruise condition, which anticipated using fuel as a heat sink. Using the National Combustion Code a PICS-based combustor was modeled with liquid fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. All CFD models used a cubic non-linear k-epsilon turbulence wall functions model, and a semi-detailed Jet-A kinetic mechanism based on a surrogate fuel mixture. Two initial spray droplet size distribution and spray cone conditions were used: 1) an initial condition (Lefebvre) with an assumed Rosin-Rammler distribution, and 7 degree Solid Spray Cone; and 2) the Boundary Layer Stripping (BLS) primary atomization model giving the spray size distribution and directional properties. Contour and line plots are shown in comparison with experimental data (where this data is available) for flow velocities, fuel, and temperature distribution. The CFD results are consistent with experimental observations for fuel distribution and vaporization. Analysis of gas sample results, using a previously-developed NASA NOx correlation, indicates that for sea-level takeoff, the PICS configuration is predicted to deliver an EINOx value of about 3 for the targeted supersonic aircraft. Emissions results at supersonic cruise conditions show potential for meeting the NASA goals with liquid fuel.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Hicks, Yolanda R.
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Tedder, Sarah A.
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Anderson, Robert C.
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Iannetti, Anthony C.
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Smith, Lance L.
(United Technologies Research Center East Hartford, CT, United States)
Dai, Zhongtao
(United Technologies Research Center East Hartford, CT, United States)
Date Acquired
April 24, 2015
Publication Date
July 28, 2014
Subject Category
Aircraft Propulsion And Power
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
Meeting: AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference
Location: Cleveland, OH
Country: United States
Start Date: July 28, 2014
End Date: July 30, 2014
Sponsors: American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, American Society for Electrical Engineers, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 699959.
Distribution Limits
Public Use Permitted.
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