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Hybrid Guidance Control for a Hypervelocity Small Size Asteroid Interceptor VehicleNear-Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets and/or asteroids that have orbits in proximity with Earth's own orbit. NEOs have collided with the Earth in the past, which can be seen at such places as Chicxulub crater, Barringer crater, and Manson crater, and will continue in the future with potentially significant and devastating results. Fortunately such NEO collisions with Earth are infrequent, but can happen at any time. Therefore it is necessary to develop and validate techniques as well as technologies necessary to prevent them. One approach to mitigate future NEO impacts is the concept of high-speed interceptor. This concept is to alter the NEO's trajectory via momentum exchange by using kinetic impactors as well as nuclear penetration devices. The interceptor has to hit a target NEO at relative velocity which imparts a sufficient change in NEO velocity. NASA's Deep Impact mission has demonstrated this scenario by intercepting Comet Temple 1, 5 km in diameter, with an impact relative speed of approximately 10 km/s. This paper focuses on the development of hybrid guidance navigation and control (GNC) algorithms for precision hypervelocity intercept of small sized NEOs. The spacecraft's hypervelocity and the NEO's small size are critical challenges for a successful mission as the NEO will not fill the field of view until a few seconds before intercept. The investigation needs to consider the error sources modeled in the navigation simulation such as spacecraft initial state uncertainties in position and velocity. Furthermore, the paper presents three selected spacecraft guidance algorithms for asteroid intercept and rendezvous missions. The selected algorithms are classical Proportional Navigation (PN) based guidance that use a first order difference to compute the derivatives, Three Plane Proportional Navigation (TPPN), and the Kinematic Impulse (KI). A manipulated Bennu orbit that has been changed to impact Earth will be used as a demonstrative example to compare the three methods. In addition, a hybrid approach that is a combination between proportional navigation and kinematic impulse will be investigated to find an effective, error tolerant, and power saving approach. A 3-dimension mission scenario for both the asteroid and the interceptor spacecraft software simulator is developed for testing of the controllers. The current result demonstrates that a miss distance magnitude of less than 10m is found using the PN and TPPN guidance laws for small asteroid in the presence of error in the spacecraft states. Moreover, the paper presents these results and also the hybrid control approach simulation results.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Zebenay, Melak M. (Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education TN, United States)
Lyzhoft, Joshua R. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Barbee, Brent W. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, United States)
Date Acquired
February 8, 2017
Publication Date
February 5, 2017
Subject Category
Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
Report/Patent Number
AAS Paper 17-270
Meeting Information
AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting(San Antonio, TX)
Distribution Limits
Public Use Permitted.

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