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Convergence Analysis of Turbulent Flow SolutionsData from the "Turbulence Modeling Resource" website for turbulent flow over an NACA-0012 airfoil is analyzed to determine the convergence behavior of three second-order CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes: CFL3D (Computational Fluids Lab 3 Dimensional flow solver), FUN3D (Fully Unstructured Navier-stokes flow solver), and TAU (German Aerospace Center (DLR) 2 dimensional code for unstructured hybrid grids solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations or the Euler equations). The convergence of both integrated properties and pointwise data are examined. Several different methods for estimating errors and computing convergence rates are compared. A high-order extension to the Richardson extrapolation is developed that improves the accuracy of the mesh limit values and provides a quantitative estimate of the threshold of the asymptotic regime. The coefficient of total drag exhibits second-order convergence for all three codes, and convergence is monotone over a sequence of 7 grids. Other force coefficients are not so well behaved. The convergence rates of the viscous component of drag on the three nest grids ranges from 3:0 for CFL3D to 1:0 for FUN3D. The three codes are converging to similar but not identical solutions. The largest differences between the codes are in the coefficient of lift for which the difference between CFL3D and FUN3D is greater than 10 (sup minus 4). The best agreement occurs in the viscous component of drag, which is the only force component for which all three codes are converging towards each other at a rate of second-order. The agreement between the two unstructured grid codes is good with all properties except lift converging towards common values at a rate of second-order. No one code was universally better than the other. The TAU code has the lowest error in total drag, FUN3D has the lowest error in lift, and CFL3D has the lowest error in the viscous component of drag.
Document ID
Document Type
Technical Memorandum (TM)
Atkins, Harold L.
(NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA, United States)
Date Acquired
November 29, 2018
Publication Date
October 1, 2018
Subject Category
Report/Patent Number
Funding Number(s)
WBS: WBS 109492.
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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