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Applicability of Spectral Decomposition by Varimax-Rotated, Principal Component Analysis to the Surface Biology and Geology (SBG) VNIR Mission ConceptCyanobacterial and Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) are a growing concern in coastal and inland waters. But, spectral interference from multiple constituents in optically complex waters can hamper application of remote sensing using traditional image processing methods. The Kent State University (KSU) spectral decomposition method can be applied to multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing images (e.g. HICO and the NASA Glenn HSI2) to partition and identify signals related to cyanobacteria, algae, pigment degradation products and suspended sediment in each pixel. Fundamental to the use of remote sensing data is the ability to extract independent signals from correlated hyperspectral VNIR data cubes. The Kent State University varimax-rotated, principal component analysis method (VPCA) is important to integrate into the SBG VNIR mission concept because it provides greater specificity, a software-based SNR boost relative to hardware performance, and can assist with Cal/Val, Modeling and Applications. We present examples of the hyperspectral application of the KSU VPCA method with relevance to SBG. The information extracted by VPCA can be validated spectrally or spatially with laboratory and/or in situ sensors, which capture spatial or time series of information at discrete points within remote sensing images. Comparisons show hyperspectral sensors extract more components than multispectral ones, but more independent information can be extracted from multispectral sensors by VPCA than traditional band ratio approaches. The spectral decomposition method is capable of enhancing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the NASA Glenn, second-generation hyperspectral imager by a factor of 7x to 20x, with a spectral reproducibility of ±3%. The spectral decomposition method, when compared against existing remote sensing monitoring methods exhibits both greater specificity and a lower detection limit. The method has been validated with multispectral images in Lake Erie to quantify the Microcystis CyanoHAB and from the Indian River Lagoon, Florida to quantify the Brown Tide resulting from A. lagunesnsis. Field operations in the Western Basin of Lake Erie were conducted using a bbe Fluoroprobe to collect vertical profiles and horizontal tows along a transect from the Toledo to the Detroit Lighthouse during coincident satellite overpasses. Extraction of pixel values from the MODIS Aqua sensor yields agreement between in situ field and lab-based measures of cyanobacterial, cryptophyte, diatoms and green algae, suspended sediment and pigment degradation products with R2>0.8.
Document ID
Document Type
Ortiz, Joseph D.
(Kent State Univ. OH, United States)
Avouris, Dulcinea
(Kent State Univ. OH, United States)
Luvall, Jeffrey C.
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL, United States)
Lekki, John D.
(NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH, United States)
Date Acquired
June 14, 2019
Publication Date
June 12, 2019
Subject Category
Life Sciences (General)
Report/Patent Number
Meeting Information
Surface Biology and Geology (SBG) Community Workshop(Washington, DC)
Distribution Limits
Portions of document may include copyright protected material.
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