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Chemical equilibriumThe entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.
Document ID
Document Type
Date Acquired
August 8, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1976
Publication Information
Publication: Mol. Phys. of Equilibrium Gases: A Handbook for Engrs.
Subject Category
Atomic And Molecular Physics
Accession Number
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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