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Response of deep and shallow tropical maritime cumuli to large-scale processesThe bulk diagnostic method of Yanai et al. (1973) and a simplified version of the spectral diagnostic method of Nitta (1975) are used for a more quantitative evaluation of the response of various types of cumuliform clouds to large-scale processes, using the same data set in the Marshall Islands area for a 100-day period in 1956. The dependence of the cloud mass flux distribution on radiative cooling, large-scale vertical motion, and evaporation from the sea is examined. It is shown that typical radiative cooling rates in the tropics tend to produce a bimodal distribution of mass spectrum exhibiting deep and shallow clouds. The bimodal distribution is further enhanced when the large-scale vertical motion is upward, and a nearly unimodal distribution of shallow clouds prevails when the relative cooling is compensated by the heating due to the large-scale subsidence. Both deep and shallow clouds are modulated by large-scale disturbances. The primary role of surface evaporation is to maintain the moisture flux at the cloud base.
Document ID
19760052987
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Authors
Yanai, M. (California Univ. Los Angeles, CA, United States)
Chu, J.-H. (California Univ. Los Angeles, CA, United States)
Stark, T. E. (California, University Los Angeles, Calif., United States)
Nitta, T. (Tokyo, University Tokyo, Japan)
Date Acquired
August 8, 2013
Publication Date
June 1, 1976
Publication Information
Publication: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Volume: 33
Subject Category
METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
Funding Number(s)
CONTRACT_GRANT: NGR-05-007-328
CONTRACT_GRANT: NSF GA-41014X
CONTRACT_GRANT: NSF OCD-74-00162
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other