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Direct energy inputs to the middle atmosphereAs a working definition of the extent of the middle atmosphere (MA), the height range from 30 to 100 km was adopted. The neutral and ionic composition and the dynamics within this height range are, for the most part, poorly understood. From available information, the importance of various particle and photon energy sources, including their variability, for ionization of the neutral atmosphere in this height range is assessed. The following topics are discussed: (1) penetration of the MA by particle and electromagnetic energy; (2) ionization sources for the MA; (3) galactic cosmic rays; (4) solar H Ly alpha, other EUV, and X-rays; (5) magnetospheric electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays; and (6) solar cosmic rays.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Rosenberg, T. J. (Maryland Univ. College Park, MD, United States)
Lanzerotti, L. J. (Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, N.J., United States)
Date Acquired
August 9, 2013
Publication Date
June 1, 1979
Publication Information
Publication: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Middle Atmosphere Electrodyn.
Subject Category
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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