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Real-time SEM studies in controlled reactive atmospheresA unique scanning electron accessory has been developed that allows the observation of specimens under partial pressures of any gas. The sample is placed in a metal support boat inside a special sample holder. The sample in the boat is imaged on a CRT and is simultaneously recorded on a videotape, allowing the reaction between the sample and the gas to be observed in real time. Sample changes can be seen continuously as the sample is being heated or cooled. This process allows the observation of material transformations such as phase changes as they happen. Temperatures as high as 1000 C have been used and are continuously monitored using a thermocouple with a digital display on the CRT and videotape. X-ray analyses can also be run before and after any reactions. In the study described here, thick-film screen-printing inks using molybdenum/tin compositions as a replacement for silver were developed to be used on terrestrial photovoltaic cells. Pieces were placed on the sample stage and heated in both O2 and H2 atmospheres. The results were used to determine the most effective frits to be used in the thick-film inks.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Gallagher, B. D. (California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, United States)
Garcia, A., III (Spectrolab, Inc. Sylmar, CA, United States)
Alonzo, J. R. (Microscopy Research Laboratories, Inc. North Branch, NJ, United States)
Date Acquired
August 12, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1985
Subject Category
Distribution Limits