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Irreversible transport in the stratosphere by internal waves of short vertical wavelengthMeasurements performed during stratospheric flights of the U-2 aircraft confirm that cross-jet transport is dominated by waves, not by large-scale circulations. Monotonic gradients of trace constituents normal to the jet axis, with upper stratospheric tracers increasing poleward and tropospheric tracers increasing equatorward, are augmented by large-scale confluence as the jet intensifies during cyclogenesis. These gradients are rotated, intensified, and significantly increased in areas as their mixing ratio surfaces are folded by the differential transport of a very low frequency transverse wave. The quasi-horizontal transport produces a laminar structure with stable layers rich in upper stratospheric tracers alternating vertically with less stable layers rich in tropospheric tracers. The transport proceeds toward irreversibility at higher frequency, shear-gravity waves extend the folding to smaller horizontal scales.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Danielsen, Edwin F.
(NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Hipskind, R. S.
(NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Starr, Walter L.
(NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Vedder, James F.
(NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)
Gaines, Steven E.
(Sterling Software, Inc. Palo Alto, CA, United States)
Kley, Dieter
(Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH Federal Republic of Germany, United States)
Kelley, Ken K.
(NOAA, Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder CO, United States)
Date Acquired
August 14, 2013
Publication Date
September 20, 1991
Publication Information
Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research
Volume: 96
ISSN: 0148-0227
Subject Category
Accession Number
Distribution Limits

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