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Microgravitational effects on chromosome behavior (7-IML-1)The effects of the two major space-related conditions, microgravity and radiation, on the maintenance and transmission of genetic information have been partially documented in many organisms. Specifically, microgravity acts at the chromosomal level, primarily on the structure and segregation of chromosomes, in producing major abberations such as deletions, breaks, nondisjunction, and chromosome loss, and to a lesser degree, cosmic radiation appears to affect the genic level, producing point mutations and DNA damage. To distinguish between the effects from microgravity and from radiation, it is necessary to monitor both mitotic and meiotic genetic damage in the same organism. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to monitor at high resolution the frequency of chromosome loss, nondisjunction, intergenic recombination, and gene mutation in mitotic and meiotic cells, to a degree impossible in other organisms. Because the yeast chromosomes are small, sensitive measurements can be made that can be extrapolated to higher organisms and man. The objectives of the research are: (1) to quantitate the effects of microgravity and its synergism with cosmic radiation on chromosomal integrity and transmission during mitosis and meiosis; (2) to discriminate between chromosomal processes sensitive to microgravity and/or radiation during mitosis and meiosis; and (3) to relate these findings to anomalous mitotic mating type switching and ascosporogenesis following meiosis.
Document ID
19920014361
Document Type
Other
Authors
Bruschi, Carlo (International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Trieste, Italy)
Date Acquired
September 6, 2013
Publication Date
February 1, 1992
Publication Information
Publication: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center, First International Microgravity Laboratory Experiment Descriptions
Subject Category
LIFE SCIENCES (GENERAL)
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.