Gravity effects on reproduction, development, and agingThe effects of various levels of gravity force (obtained by rotation in clinostats or by centrifugation) and the near-weightlessness condition aboard orbiting spacecraft on the fertilization, embryonic development, maturation, and aging of animals are examined. Results obtained from the American and Soviet spaceborne biology experiments are presented including those on mammals, amphibians, fish, birds, invertebrates, and protozoa. Theoretical issues related to the effect of gravity on various physiological systems are discused together with the future research goals concerning human life in space. It is noted that life in space (after adaptation to near-weightlessness) might be significantly prolonged due to a reduction in metabolic rate and a concomitant decrease in oxygen radical reactions.
Miquel, Jaime (Alicante, Universidad Spain)
Souza, Kenneth A. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA, United States)