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Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions estimated from tethered balloon observationsA new technique for estimating surface fluxes of trace gases, the mixed-layer gradient technique, is used to calculate isoprene and terpene emissions from forests. The technique is applied to tethered balloon measurements made over the Amazon forest and a pine-oak forest in Alabama at altitudes up to 300 m. The observations were made during the dry season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) and the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment 1990 experiment (ROSE I). Results from large eddy simulations of scalar transport in the clear convective boundary layer are used to infer fluxes from the balloon profiles. Profiles from the Amazon give a mean daytime emission of 3630 +/- 1400 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, where the uncertainty represents the standard deviation of the mean of eight flux estimates. Twenty profiles from Alabama give emissions of 4470 +/- 3300 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, 1740 +/- 1060 micrograms alpha-pinene sq m/h, and 790 +/- 560 micrograms beta-pinene sq m/h, respectively. These results are in agreement with emissions derived from chemical budgets. The emissions may be overestimated because of uncertainty about how to incorporate the effects of the canopy on the mixed-layer gradients. The large variability in these emission estimates is probably due to the relatively short sampling times of the balloon profiles, though spatially heterogeneous emissions may also play a role. Fluxes derived using this technique are representative of an upwind footprint of several kilometers and are independent of hydrocarbon oxidation rate and mean advection.
Document ID
19950053251
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Authors
Davis, K. J. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO United States)
Lenschow, D. H. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO United States)
Zimmerman, P. R. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO United States)
Date Acquired
August 16, 2013
Publication Date
December 20, 1994
Publication Information
Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research
Volume: 99
Issue: D12
ISSN: 0148-0227
Subject Category
ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Other