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Record 8 of 3305
The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets
External Online Source: doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1998)037<0661:TBBSIS>2.0.CO;2
Author and Affiliation:
Christopher, Sundar A.(Alabama Univ., Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Huntsville, AL United States)
Wang, Min(Alabama Univ., Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Huntsville, AL United States)
Berendes, Todd A.(Alabama Univ., Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Huntsville, AL United States)
Welch, Ronald M.(Alabama Univ., Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Huntsville, AL United States)
Yang, Shi-Keng(National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Prediction Center, Washington, DC United States)
Abstract: Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale, thereby reducing the uncertainties in current global aerosol radiative forcing values.
Publication Date: Jul 01, 1998
Document ID:
19990036318
(Acquired May 14, 1999)
Subject Category: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
Document Type: Reprint
Publication Information: Journal of Applied Meteorology; Volume 37; 661-678
Publisher Information: American Meteorological Society, United States
Contract/Grant/Task Num: NAGw-3740; NAGw-5195
Financial Sponsor: NASA; Washington, DC United States
Organization Source: Alabama Univ.; Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Huntsville, AL United States
Description: In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: Copyright
NASA Terms: BIOMASS; COMBUSTION; ECOSYSTEMS; FORESTS; GRASSLANDS; RAIN FORESTS; SMOKE; SOUTH AMERICA; TROPICAL REGIONS; EARTH OBSERVATIONS (FROM SPACE); ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER; EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS); ENERGY BUDGETS; IMAGING SPECTROMETERS; INFRARED SCANNERS; TRMM SATELLITE; EARTH RADIATION BUDGET EXPERIMENT; AGRICULTURE; REMOTE SENSING
Availability Source: Other Sources
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