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Protein Crystal Movements and Fluid Flows During Microgravity GrowthThe growth of protein crystals suitable for x-ray crystal structure analysis is an important topic. The quality (perfection) of protein crystals is now being evaluated by mosaicity analysis (rocking curves) and x-ray topographic images as well as the diffraction resolution limit and overall data quality. In yet another study, use of hanging drop vapour diffusion geometry on the IML-2 shuttle mission showed, again via CCD video monitoring, growing apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) protein crystal executing near cyclic movement, reminiscent of Marangoni convection flow of fluid, the crystals serving as "markers" of the fluid flow. A review is given here of existing results and experience over several microgravity missions. Some comment is given on gel protein crystal growth in attempts to 'mimic' the benefits of microgravity on Earth. Finally, the recent new results from our experiments on the shuttle mission LMS are described. These results include CCD video as well as interferometry during the mission, followed, on return to Earth, by reciprocal space mapping at the NSLS, Brookhaven, and full X-ray data collection on LMS and Earth control lysozyme crystals. Diffraction data recorded from LMS and ground control apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) crystals are also described.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Boggon, Titus J.
(Manchester Univ. United Kingdom)
Chayen, Naomi E.
(Manchester Univ. United Kingdom)
Snell, Edward H.
(Imperial Coll. of Science Technology and Medicine London, United Kingdom)
Dong, Jun
(NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL United States)
Lautenschlager, Peter
(Manchester Univ. United Kingdom)
Potthast, Lothar
(Dornier-Werke G.m.b.H. Friedrichshafen, Germany)
Siddons, D. Peter
(Dornier-Werke G.m.b.H. Friedrichshafen, Germany)
Stojanoff, Vivian
(Brookhaven National Lab. Upton, NY United States)
Gordon, Elspeth
(European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Grenoble, France)
Thompson, Andrew W.
(Jean-Pierre Ebel Inst. of Structural Biology Grenoble, France)
Zagalsky, Peter F.
(European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Grenoble, France)
Bi, Ru-Chang
(Royal Holloway and Bedford New Coll. Egham, United Kingdom)
Helliwell, John R.
(Academia Sinica Beijing, China)
Date Acquired
August 19, 2013
Publication Date
April 15, 1998
Publication Information
Publication: Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Publisher: Royal Society
Volume: 356
Issue: 1739
ISSN: 1364-503X
Subject Category
Solid-State Physics
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits

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