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Record 33 of 287
Practical Aerodynamic Design Optimization Based on the Navier-Stokes Equations and a Discrete Adjoint Method
Availability: Go to Request Form
Author and Affiliation:
Grossman, Bernard(Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Dept. of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Blacksburg, VA United States)
Abstract: The technical details are summarized below: Compressible and incompressible versions of a three-dimensional unstructured mesh Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver have been differentiated and resulting derivatives have been verified by comparisons with finite differences and a complex-variable approach. In this implementation, the turbulence model is fully coupled with the flow equations in order to achieve this consistency. The accuracy demonstrated in the current work represents the first time that such an approach has been successfully implemented. The accuracy of a number of simplifying approximations to the linearizations of the residual have been examined. A first-order approximation to the dependent variables in both the adjoint and design equations has been investigated. The effects of a "frozen" eddy viscosity and the ramifications of neglecting some mesh sensitivity terms were also examined. It has been found that none of the approximations yielded derivatives of acceptable accuracy and were often of incorrect sign. However, numerical experiments indicate that an incomplete convergence of the adjoint system often yield sufficiently accurate derivatives, thereby significantly lowering the time required for computing sensitivity information. The convergence rate of the adjoint solver relative to the flow solver has been examined. Inviscid adjoint solutions typically require one to four times the cost of a flow solution, while for turbulent adjoint computations, this ratio can reach as high as eight to ten. Numerical experiments have shown that the adjoint solver can stall before converging the solution to machine accuracy, particularly for viscous cases. A possible remedy for this phenomenon would be to include the complete higher-order linearization in the preconditioning step, or to employ a simple form of mesh sequencing to obtain better approximations to the solution through the use of coarser meshes. . An efficient surface parameterization based on a free-form deformation technique has been utilized and the resulting codes have been integrated with an optimization package. Lastly, sample optimizations have been shown for inviscid and turbulent flow over an ONERA M6 wing. Drag reductions have been demonstrated by reducing shock strengths across the span of the wing.
Publication Date: Aug 01, 1999
Document ID:
19990115022
(Acquired Dec 03, 1999)
Subject Category: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
Coverage: Final Report; 5 Dec. 1997 - 31 Jan. 1999
Document Type: Technical Report
Contract/Grant/Task Num: NCC1-279
Financial Sponsor: NASA Langley Research Center; Hampton, VA United States
Organization Source: Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.; Dept. of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering; Blacksburg, VA United States
Description: 3p; In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: No Copyright
NASA Terms: AERODYNAMICS; DESIGN ANALYSIS; DEPENDENT VARIABLES; PARAMETERIZATION; COMPLEX VARIABLES; DEFORMATION; NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION; THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW; TURBULENCE MODELS; SIMPLIFICATION; UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS (MATHEMATICS)
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