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A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for KenyaA climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
Gatebe, C. K. (Nairobi Univ. Kenya)
Tyson, P. D. (Witwatersrand Univ. Johannesburg, South Africa)
Annegarn, H. (Witwatersrand Univ. Johannesburg, South Africa)
Piketh, S. (Witwatersrand Univ. Johannesburg, South Africa)
Helas, G. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie Mainz, Germany)
Date Acquired
August 19, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1998
Subject Category
Environment Pollution
Distribution Limits