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Record 22 of 324
Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter
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Author and Affiliation:
Lowe, Roland A.(Kent State Univ., OH United States)
Chubb, Donald L.(NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH United States)
Farmer, Serene C.(NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH United States)
Good, Brian S.(NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH United States)
Abstract: Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional impurities, in the development of solid state laser crystals. Doping, dependent on the particular ion and crystal structure, may be as high as 100 at. % (complete substitution of yttrium ion with the rare earth ion). These materials have high melting points, 1940 C for YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet), and low emissivity in the near infrared making them excellent candidates for a thin film selective emitter. As previously stated, the spectral emittance of a rare earth emitter is characterized by one or more well defined emission bands. Outside the emission band the emittance(absorptance) is much lower. Therefore, it is expected that emission outside the band for a thin film selective emitter will be dominated by the emitter substrate. For an efficient emitter (power in the emission band/total emitted power) the substrate must have low emittance, epsilon(sub S). This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda), measurements of holmium(Ho) and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at (1500 K), and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.
Publication Date: Sep 01, 1994
Document ID:
20000032846
(Acquired Apr 28, 2000)
Subject Category: ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Document Type: Conference Paper
Publication Information: Proceedings of the 13th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 13); 335-339; (NASA-CP-3278); (SEE 20000032812)
Financial Sponsor: NASA Lewis Research Center; Cleveland, OH United States
Organization Source: NASA Lewis Research Center; Cleveland, OH United States
Description: 5p; In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: No Copyright
NASA Terms: RARE EARTH ELEMENTS; EMITTERS; YTTRIUM-ALUMINUM GARNET; EMITTANCE; FABRICATION; SPECTRAL EMISSION; SPECTRUM ANALYSIS; THERMOPHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERSION; ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS; ALUMINUM; ADDITIVES; DOPED CRYSTALS; IMPURITIES; INFRARED RADIATION; MELTING POINTS; NEAR INFRARED RADIATION; OPERATING TEMPERATURE; SOLID STATE LASERS
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