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The Distribution of Titanium in Lunar Soils on the Basis of Sensor and In Situ Data FusionA variety of remote-sensing measurements have been used to map the distribution of elements on the Moon as a means of providing constraints on the processes from which its crust and major terranes originated. Discussed here is Ti, which is incorporated into refractory minerals such as ilmenite during the latter stages of differentiation, and is thus a most useful element for understanding mare basalt petrogenesis. One of the earliest Ti maps showed Ti variations in nearside maria on the basis of groundbased spectral reflectance measurements. A map of Ti derived from gamma-ray measurements on Apollo 15 and 16 was produced at about the same time, and was improved upon considerably by Davis and coworkers, who effectively removed sources of spurious variation from Fe and Al or REE (e.g., Th) interference, and calibrated Ti on the bases of landing-site soil averages. In recent years, spectral reflectance measurements from Clementine have been used by Lucey and coworkers to produce global Ti distribution maps as well. As we indicated previously, the Lucey and Davis maps agree to first order. Meanwhile, we are using the concept of sensor data fusion to combine measurements from the AGR (Apollo gamma-ray) and CSR (Clementine Spectral Reflectance) techniques with ground truth from lunar soils to utilize the differences between the two maps to understand the distribution of Ti within lunar soil components, as we have done with Fe. This technique should be verified and applied on Lunar Prospector gamma-ray measurements of Ti, as the calibrated data become available within the next couple of years. Lunar Ti is found principally in the mineral ilmenite, and is associated with certain components of lunar soil: crystalline Ilmenite mineral fragments and high Ti-bearing glass. All data indicate that Ti is associated with maria and mafic minerals. In AGR and CSR datasets, Ti is highest on the nearside and in the maria, particularly in southern Serenitatis/northern Tranquillitatis and northwestern Procellarum. Unlike CSR-derived values, AGR Ti values show modest increase (up to 0.7%) on the northern farside. Both techniques show a primarily unimodal distribution with a shoulder in the high Ti direction and a primary mode at approximately 0.2% (0.15% for CSR and 0.25% for AGR data), but the AGR Ti data have more structure in the shoulder, including an apparent minor mode at 1.2% Ti, representing non-highland areas. Recalibrating the two datasets on the basis of matching the peaks and range on the histograms would not account for this additional structure in the AGR data. Low Ti areas, which occur predominantly on the farside, are not represented well in the lunar sample collection, although several meteorites thought to be of lunar highland origin show Ti abundances averaging about 0.2%. (Error bars on AGR Ti values are about 0.5%.) Gamma-ray measurements reflect intrinsic Ti surface composition, regardless of the physical or chemical state of Ti. Lucey and coworkers have attempted to produce an equivalent bulk Ti map by normalizing the spectral feature at 415 nm to remove the effects of physical variations from soil to soil. The normalization is based on laboratory measurements of available samples, primarily nearside maria, and is undoubtedly optimized for the proportions in which Ti- components are found in these soils. In particular, mare soils tend to have a much higher proportion of opaque mineral grains, which appears to be well correlated with Ti abundance. The relationship between Ti abundance and proportion of Ti-bearing glass (weighted for Ti abundance) is not as direct. Also shows the relationship between landing site soil average, AGR, and CSR Ti abundances (with CSR filtered to match resolution and field of view of AGR data). AGR Ti values show the best agreement with Ti soil averages, CSR Ti values being somewhat higher in high-Ti soils, and lower in low-Ti soils. These results would tend to support the argument that the technique for deriving Ti from the CSR measurements is optimized for one of the primary Ti-bearing components, most likely opaque mineral grains, and is thus over-compensating and reporting higher Ti values in mare areas, and underreporting Ti in highland areas with much lower proportions of opaque mineral grains. More information is contained in original.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Clark, P. E. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD United States)
Evans, L. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD United States)
Date Acquired
August 19, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1999
Publication Information
Publication: Workshop on New Views of the Moon 2: Understanding the Moon Through the Integration of Diverse Datasets
Subject Category
Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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IDRelationTitle20000040479Analytic PrimaryWorkshop on New Views of the Moon 2: Understanding the Moon Through the Integration of Diverse Datasets