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HTMT-class Latency Tolerant Parallel Architecture for Petaflops Scale ComputationComputational Aero Sciences and other numeric intensive computation disciplines demand computing throughputs substantially greater than the Teraflops scale systems only now becoming available. The related fields of fluids, structures, thermal, combustion, and dynamic controls are among the interdisciplinary areas that in combination with sufficient resolution and advanced adaptive techniques may force performance requirements towards Petaflops. This will be especially true for compute intensive models such as Navier-Stokes are or when such system models are only part of a larger design optimization computation involving many design points. Yet recent experience with conventional MPP configurations comprising commodity processing and memory components has shown that larger scale frequently results in higher programming difficulty and lower system efficiency. While important advances in system software and algorithms techniques have had some impact on efficiency and programmability for certain classes of problems, in general it is unlikely that software alone will resolve the challenges to higher scalability. As in the past, future generations of high-end computers may require a combination of hardware architecture and system software advances to enable efficient operation at a Petaflops level. The NASA led HTMT project has engaged the talents of a broad interdisciplinary team to develop a new strategy in high-end system architecture to deliver petaflops scale computing in the 2004/5 timeframe. The Hybrid-Technology, MultiThreaded parallel computer architecture incorporates several advanced technologies in combination with an innovative dynamic adaptive scheduling mechanism to provide unprecedented performance and efficiency within practical constraints of cost, complexity, and power consumption. The emerging superconductor Rapid Single Flux Quantum electronics can operate at 100 GHz (the record is 770 GHz) and one percent of the power required by convention semiconductor logic. Wave Division Multiplexing optical communications can approach a peak per fiber bandwidth of 1 Tbps and the new Data Vortex network topology employing this technology can connect tens of thousands of ports providing a bi-section bandwidth on the order of a Petabyte per second with latencies well below 100 nanoseconds, even under heavy loads. Processor-in-Memory (PIM) technology combines logic and memory on the same chip exposing the internal bandwidth of the memory row buffers at low latency. And holographic storage photorefractive storage technologies provide high-density memory with access a thousand times faster than conventional disk technologies. Together these technologies enable a new class of shared memory system architecture with a peak performance in the range of a Petaflops but size and power requirements comparable to today's largest Teraflops scale systems. To achieve high-sustained performance, HTMT combines an advanced multithreading processor architecture with a memory-driven coarse-grained latency management strategy called "percolation", yielding high efficiency while reducing the much of the parallel programming burden. This paper will present the basic system architecture characteristics made possible through this series of advanced technologies and then give a detailed description of the new percolation approach to runtime latency management.
Document ID
20000064596
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Sterling, Thomas (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA United States)
Bergman, Larry (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA United States)
Date Acquired
August 19, 2013
Publication Date
February 1, 2000
Subject Category
Computer Systems
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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