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X-Ray, EUV, UV and Optical Emissivities of Astrophysical PlasmasThis grant primarily covered the development of the thermal X-ray emission model code called APEC, which is meant to replace the Raymond and Smith (1977) code. The new code contains far more spectral lines and a great deal of updated atomic data. The code is now available (, though new atomic data is still being added, particularly at longer wavelengths. While initial development of the code was funded by this grant, current work is carried on by N. Brickhouse, R. Smith and D. Liedahl under separate funding. Over the last five years, the grant has provided salary support for N. Brickhouse, R. Smith, a summer student (L. McAllister), an SAO predoctoral fellow (A. Vasquez), and visits by T. Kallman, D. Liedahl, P. Ghavamian, J.M. Laming, J. Li, P. Okeke, and M. Martos. In addition to the code development, the grant supported investigations into X-ray and UV spectral diagnostics as applied to shock waves in the ISM, accreting black holes and white dwarfs, and stellar coronae. Many of these efforts are continuing. Closely related work on the shock waves and coronal mass ejections in the solar corona has grown out of the efforts supported by the grant.
Document ID
Document Type
Contractor or Grantee Report
Raymond, John C. (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Cambridge, MA United States)
West, Donald
Date Acquired
August 19, 2013
Publication Date
August 1, 2000
Subject Category
Plasma Physics
Funding Number(s)
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.
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