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Stereo Imaging Velocimetry of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy Induced Flow FieldsMixing of two fluids generated by steady and particularly g-jitter acceleration is fundamental towards the understanding of transport phenomena in a microgravity environment. We propose to carry out flight and ground-based experiments to quantify flow fields due to g-jitter type of accelerations using Stereo Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), and measure the concentration field using laser fluorescence. The understanding of the effects of g-jitter on transport phenomena is of great practical interest to the microgravity community and impacts the design of experiments for the Space Shuttle as well as the International Space Station. The aim of our proposed research is to provide quantitative data to the community on the effects of g-jitter on flow fields due to mixing induced by buoyancy forces. The fundamental phenomenon of mixing occurs in a broad range of materials processing encompassing the growth of opto-electronic materials and semiconductors, (by directional freezing and physical vapor transport), to solution and protein crystal growth. In materials processing of these systems, crystal homogeneity, which is affected by the solutal field distribution, is one of the major issues. The understanding of fluid mixing driven by buoyancy forces, besides its importance as a topic in fundamental science, can contribute towards the understanding of how solutal fields behave under various body forces. The body forces of interest are steady acceleration and g-jitter acceleration as in a Space Shuttle environment or the International Space Station. Since control of the body force is important, the flight experiment will be carried out on a tunable microgravity vibration isolation mount, which will permit us to precisely input the desired forcing function to simulate a range of body forces. To that end, we propose to design a flight experiment that can only be carried out under microgravity conditions to fully exploit the effects of various body forces on fluid mixing. Recent flight experiments, by the P.I. through collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (STS-85, August 1997), aimed at determining the stability of the interface between two miscible liquids inside an enclosure show that a long liquid column (5 cm) under microgravity isolation conditions can be stable, i.e. the interface remains sharp and vertical over a short time scale; thus transport occurs by molecular mass diffusion. On the other hand, when the two liquids were excited from a controlled vibration source (Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount) two to four mode large amplitude quasi-stationary waves were observed. The data was limited to CCD recording of the dynamics of the interface between the two fluids. We propose to carry out flight experiments to quantify the dynamics of the flow field using Stereo Imaging Velocimetry and measure the concentration field using laser fluorescence. The results will serve as a basis to understand effects of g-jitter on transport phenomena, in this case mass diffusion. As the measurement of the kinematics of the flow field will shed light on the instability mechanism. The research will allow measurement of the flow field in microgravity environment to prove two hypotheses: (1) Maxwell's hypothesis: finite convection always exists in diffusing systems, and (2) Quasi-stationary waves inside a bounded enclosure in a microgravity environment is generated by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability; resonance of the interface which produces incipient mixing is due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The first hypothesis can be used as a benchmark experiment to illustrate diffusive mixing. The second hypothesis will lead to the understanding of g-jitter effects on buoyancy driven flow fields which occur in many situations involving materials processing, and other basic fluid physics phenomena. In addition, the second hypothesis will also provide insight in how Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities propagate concentration fronts during mixing. Measurement of the flow field using SIV is important because it is the flow field which causes instability at the interface between the two fluids. Mixing driven by buoyancy induced flow fields will be addressed both experimentally and computationally. The experimental effort will address the kinematics of mixing: stretching, transport and chaos. Quantification of the mechanisms of mixing will consists of measuring the flow field using the SIV system at Glenn and capturing the dynamics of the interface, to measure mass transport, using a CCD camera. These experiments will be carried out within the framework of Earth's gravity and g-jitter microgravity acceleration as in a Space Shuttle environment or the International Space Station. The g-jitter will be induced and controlled using a tunable vibration isolation platform to isolate against vibration as well as input periodic and random vibration to the system. The parametric range of the microgravity experiment will be extended from the experiments on STS-85 to investigate higher mode quasi-stationary waves (8 to 12), as well as resonance regions which leads to chaos and turbulence. Ground-based experiments will focus on effects of vibration on stably stratified fluid layers in order to scale for possible scenarios in a microgravity environment. These vibrations will be subjected perpendicular to the concentration field on the ground since the parallel case can only be carried out in a microgravity environment. The concept of dynamical similarity will be applied to tune the experiments as closely as possible to a Space Shuttle environment or the International Space Station. The computational effort will take advantage of the Computational Laboratory at Glenn to corroborate the experimental findings with predictions of the dynamics of the flow field using the codes FLUENT (finite difference based) and FIDAP (finite element based). We will investigate two important cases, single-fluid model to address dilute systems with negligible jump in viscosity and the more general two-fluid model which accounts for finite jump in viscosity. Apart from its microgravity relevance, this experiment is well suited to study dynamics in nonlinear systems.
Document ID
20010024976
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Duval, W. M. B. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Jacqmin, D. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Bomani, B. M. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Alexander, I. J. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Kassemi, M. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Batur, C. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Tryggvason, B. V. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Lyubimov, D. V. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Lyubimova, T. P. (NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH United States)
Date Acquired
August 20, 2013
Publication Date
December 1, 2000
Publication Information
Publication: Proceedings of the Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference
Subject Category
Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.

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