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Remote Sensing of Aerosol Backscatter and Earth Surface Targets By Use of An Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Over Western North AmericaAirborne lidar systems are used to determine wind velocity and to measure aerosol or cloud backscatter variability. Atmospheric aerosols, being affected by local and regional sources, show tremendous variability. Continuous wave (cw) lidar can obtain detailed aerosol loading with unprecedented high resolution (3 sec) and sensitivity (1 mg/cubic meter) as was done during the 1995 NASA Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission over western North America and the Pacific Ocean. Backscatter variability was measured at a 9.1 micron wavelength cw focused CO2 Doppler lidar for approximately 52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from approximately 0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was approximately 6 x 10(exp -11)/ms/r, consistent with previous lidar datasets. While these atmospheric measurements were made, the lidar also retrieved a distinct backscatter signal from the Earth's surface from the unfocused part of the focused cw lidar beam during aircraft rolls. Atmospheric backscatter can be highly variable both spatially and temporally, whereas, Earth-surface backscatter is relatively much less variant and can be quite predictable. Therefore, routine atmospheric backscatter measurements by an airborne lidar also give Earth surface backscatter which can allow for investigating the Earth terrain. In the case where the Earth's surface backscatter is coming from a well-known and fairly uniform region, then it can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities during flight. These Earth surface measurements over varying Californian terrain during the mission were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements using the same lidar of various Earth surfaces giving good agreement, suggesting that the lidar efficiency, and thus a lidar calibration factor for detection, can be estimated fairly well using Earth's surface signal.
Document ID
20010041321
Document Type
Conference Paper
Authors
Jarzembski, Maurice A. (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville, AL United States)
Srivastava, Vandana (Universities Space Research Association Huntsville, AL United States)
Goodman, H. Michael
Date Acquired
August 20, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 2000
Subject Category
Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
Meeting Information
Workshop in Multi/Hyperspectral Sensors, Measurements, Modeling Simulation
Distribution Limits
Public
Copyright
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.