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Record 2 of 42
Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making
Author and Affiliation:
Orasanu, Judith(NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA United States)
Statler, Irving C. [Technical Monitor]
Abstract: The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.
Publication Date: Jan 01, 1994
Document ID:
20010048884
(Acquired Jun 08, 2001)
Subject Category: BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
Document Type: Preprint
Meeting Information: Western European Association for Aviation Psychology; 28-31 Mar. 1994; Dublin; Ireland
Contract/Grant/Task Num: RTOP 199-06-12
Financial Sponsor: NASA Ames Research Center; Moffett Field, CA United States
Organization Source: NASA Ames Research Center; Moffett Field, CA United States
Description: 1p; In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: No Copyright
NASA Terms: DECISION MAKING; FLIGHT CREWS; AERONAUTICS; AIRCRAFT SAFETY; RISK; COCKPITS
Availability Source: Other Sources
Availability Notes: Abstract Only
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