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Troposphere-to-Stratosphere Transport in the Lowermost Stratosphere from Measurements of H2O, CO2, N2O and O3The origin of air in the lowermost stratosphere is investigated with measurements from the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Air with high water vapor mixing ratios was observed in the stratosphere at theta = 330-380 K near 40 N in May 1995, indicating the influence of intrusions of tropospheric air. Assuming that observed tracer-tracer relationships reflect mixing lines between tropospheric and stratospheric air masses, we calculate mixing ratios of H2O (12-24 ppmv) and CO2 for the admixed tropospheric air at theta = 352-364 K. Temperatures on the 355 K surface at 20-40 N were low enough to dehydrate air to these values. While most ER-2 CO2 data in both hemispheres are consistent with tropical or subtropical air entering the lowermost stratosphere, measurements from May 1995 for theta < 362 K suggest that entry of air from the midlatitude upper troposphere can occur in conjunction with mixing processes near the tropopause.
Document ID
Document Type
Reprint (Version printed in journal)
External Source(s)
Hintsa, E. J.
(Harvard Univ. MA United States)
Boering, K. A.
(Harvard Univ. MA United States)
Weinstock, E. M.
(Harvard Univ. MA United States)
Anderson, J. G.
(Harvard Univ. MA United States)
Gary, B. L.
(Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech. Pasadena, CA United States)
Pfister, L.
(NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Daube, B. C.
(Harvard Univ. MA United States)
Wofsy, S. C.
(Harvard Univ. MA United States)
Loewenstein, M.
(NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Podolske, J. R.
(NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Date Acquired
August 20, 2013
Publication Date
July 15, 1998
Publication Information
Publication: Geophysical Research Letters
Volume: 25
Issue: 14
ISSN: 0094-8534
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Report/Patent Number
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