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Record 9 of 283
Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure
Author and Affiliation:
Stocks, Jodie M.(NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA United States)
Taylor, Nigel A. S.(NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA United States)
Tipton, Michael J.(NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA United States)
Greenleaf, John E.(NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA United States)
Abstract: When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.
Publication Date: Jan 01, 2001
Document ID:
20010114156
(Acquired Dec 07, 2001)
Subject Category: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
Document Type: Preprint
Financial Sponsor: NASA Ames Research Center; Moffett Field, CA United States
Organization Source: NASA Ames Research Center; Moffett Field, CA United States
Description: 1p; In English
Distribution Limits: Unclassified; Publicly available; Unlimited
Rights: No Copyright
NASA Terms: PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES; BODY TEMPERATURE; COLD ACCLIMATIZATION; VASOCONSTRICTION; METABOLISM; COLD TOLERANCE; THERMOREGULATION; SUBZERO TEMPERATURE; PHYSICAL EXERCISE; AGE FACTOR; SEX FACTOR; HABITUATION (LEARNING); DESENSITIZING; HYPOTHERMIA; THERMAL INSULATION
Availability Source: Other Sources
Availability Notes: Abstract Only
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