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Fluid Redistribution and Heart Rate in Humans During Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative PressureGravity creates blood pressure gradients which redistribute body fluids towards the feet. Positive G(z) centrifugation and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have been proposed to simulate these and other effects of gravity during long-term existence in microgravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of upper-to-lower body fluid redistribution would increase according to the following order: short-arm centrifugation (SAC), long-arm centrifugation (LAC), head-up tilt (HUT), and LBNP. To test this hypothesis, we employed strain gauge plethysmography of the neck, thigh and calf during HUT and supine SAC and LAC up to lG(z) at the feet, and during supine LBNP to 100 mm Hg. Supine 100 mm Hg LBNP generates footward force and produces transmural blood pressures in the foot approximately equal to 1 G(z) (90 deg) HUT. Heart rate was measured via cardiotachometry. Control measurements were made while supine. SAC and LAC elicited similar increases in thigh volume at 1 G(z) (2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.1 +/- 0.1%, respectively; mean +/- se, n greater than or equal to 7). At 100 mm Hg LBNP, thigh volume increased (3.4 +/- 0.3%) significantly more than during l G(z) centrifugation (p less than 0.05). Surprisingly, due to a paradoxical 0.6% reduction of thigh volume between 0.8 and 1.0 G(z) HUT, thigh volume was increased only 0.6 +/- 0.3% at 1 G(z) HUT. The calf demonstrated similar, although less definitive, responses to the various gravitational stimuli. Neck volume tended to decrease less during HUT than during the other stimuli. Heart rate increased similarly during HUT (18 +/- 2 beats/min) and LAC (12 +/- 2 beats/min), and exhibited still greater elevation during LBNP (29 +/- 4 beats/min), yet did not increase during SAC. These results suggest upright posture activates mechanisms that counteract footward fluid redistribution which are not activated during supine applications of simulated gravity. LAC more closely approximated effects of normal gravity (HUT) than LBNP. Therefore, when considering LBNP to simulate gravity, these findings support efforts to reduce the cardiovascular stress imposed by LBNP, while preserving the gravity-like force generated by LBNP.
Document ID
Document Type
Conference Paper
Watenpaugh, D. E. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Breit, G. A. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Ballard, R. E. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Murthy, G. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Hargens, A. R. (NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA United States)
Date Acquired
August 20, 2013
Publication Date
January 1, 1994
Subject Category
Aerospace Medicine
Meeting Information
American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology Meeting(San Francisco, CA)
Funding Number(s)
PROJECT: RTOP 199-14-12-04
Distribution Limits
Work of the US Gov. Public Use Permitted.